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“The largest source of referrals for non-athlete students — besides word-of-mouth — was the fraternity network on campus,” Wainstein said in the report.

Wainstein and his team found 729 enrollments by members of the Greek system in paper classes from 1999 to 2011. At one point, there were so many Greek community members in paper classes that Deborah Crowder, the former administrator in the Department of African and Afro-American Studies who created the paper class scheme, became worried she was providing paper classes to students who were “looking for a ‘slack’ class” rather than students who she thought were in need of an academic boost.

Kenan Drum, president of the UNC Interfraternity Council, said he was not concerned about the report’s findings.

“Frankly, I think the allegations are egregiously generalized and overblown,” Drum said. “When you crunch the numbers, it’s comparable to the rest of the student body. There is nothing remarkable about members of the Greek system taking these classes.”

Drum said there were 13,000 IFC members over the 10-year period specified in the report. He used this number to come up with his own estimation of IFC’s involvement in the academic scandal and concluded that only a small percentage of IFC members could have taken one of the paper classes.

Wainstein estimated that 3,100 students enrolled in paper classes in the 18 years they were offered — less than one percent of the total student body during that time.

Christopher Brodowicz, president of Alpha Tau Omega, said he did not think the report would damage the reputation of the Greek system on campus. He said the report was brought up in IFC meetings, where Drum assured members he thought the Greek system was no more implicated than the rest of the student body.

Wainstein believed the Greek grade point average requirements pressured fraternity members into taking the paper classes.

“Besides the individual fraternity brothers’ desire for an easy class, the fraternities themselves had an incentive to direct their members to these classes,” the report said.

“Like the athletic teams whose members need to maintain a minimum GPA to compete under NCAA eligibility rules, fraternity and sorority houses are subject to minimum GPA requirements to retain institutional recognition.”

Brodowicz said UNC’s Office of Fraternity & Sorority Life and Community Involvement has a requirement that if chapters dip below a cumulative GPA of 3.0 for two semesters in a row, they are not allowed to recruit new members during the next recruitment period.

“The great thing about UNC is that we all got in here because we put emphasis on grades. Most people realize that it takes a good GPA to get a good job,” Brodowicz said. “I don’t think (this pressure) is increased by being a fraternity member. I think the school puts on more stress than the fraternity.”

Aaron Bachenheimer, director of the Office of Fraternity & Sorority Life and Community Involvement, would not comment on GPA requirements or penalizing procedures.

“Our office monitors the academic progress of all members in the Greek community,” Bachenheimer said in a statement Thursday.

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“This allows us to recognize high achievement for members and chapters and place underperforming organizations on an academic improvement plan. Students who need additional assistance are referred to their academic adviser or academic support programs.”

According to Wainstein’s report, some academic advisers encouraged at-risk members to enroll in paper classes.

Lea Palmer, a member of Zeta Tau Alpha, said the findings in the report were upsetting, but she believes the Greek system will be able to bounce back


“Because it was so long ago, we can really learn how to come back from (it),” Palmer said. “There are a lot of people at fault, Greek and not Greek. Even if it’s 5.6 percent (of Greek members in paper classes), it should be zero.”

Staff writer Kelly Jasiura contributed to reporting.