The town of Hillsborough was laid out by William Churton in 1754. At the time it was called Orange. The town took its current name in 1766 after William Hill, who was the secretary of state for the colonies under King George III.
The town has a number of historical attractions. It was the home of one of the signers of the Declarations of Independence, William Hooper, and his house still stands today. The town is also home to the Orange County Historical Museum.
Hillsborough is a major site for government in Orange County. It is the home of the courthouse, the district attorney’s office, the county board of elections, the board of commissioners and the board of education.